Health & Medical Question

Learning Goal: I’m working on a health & medical multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Unit 2: Discussion

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Processes in Social Psychology

Chapters 3 and 4 discuss important concepts related to our social self: how we come to think about and view ourselves and then the factors that influence how others perceive us. These factors and processes are critical to developing our overall sense of self and well-being. How we think and feel about ourselves influences how we react and respond to others, how we view life, what kinds of life goals we set for ourselves, the motivations we have in life, and our general sense of personal value, competency, and quality of life.

We can all think of experiences we had as child, as a teen, at home, in school, at work, socially, with family, with friends, etc. that impacted us in significantly positive/affirming ways and negative/hurtful ways. Those experiences affect how we see the world and ourselves and how we chose to interact with others. The text talks about processes we use to develop a sense of how we define ourselves (self-concept, self-schema, self-esteem), how we perceive life (affective forecasting, belief in a just world, cultural values, confirmation bias, halo effect, fundamental attribution error, counterfactual thinking, attribution biases), processes we use to evaluate ourselves (self-perceptions, social comparisons, introspection, self-discrepancy), processes we use to bolster our sense of self (implicit egoism, self-serving beliefs, self-handicapping, basking in reflected glory, downward social comparisons), and how we choose to interact with others (strategic self-presentation, self-verification).

There are many ways we are not self-aware. Many people perceive themselves one way while those who know them perceive them very differently. We live our lives with underlying beliefs and approaches that our life experiences have built into us and we “react” to life based on those experiences. Reflect on what some of your basic patterns – beliefs and behaviors – that characterize your approach to life. Some people find the world a safe and positive place with which they want to connect and interact. Others find the world a dangerous and threatening place against which they need to defend themselves. Most of us are a mixture of those polarities and have developed an approach to life that balances different motivations and concerns.

Please describe two of your basic beliefs and resulting behaviors about yourself and the world. Explain how those beliefs influence your choices and behaviors. Describe what you think is positive and what is negative about these basic beliefs, what has been helpful about them, what you’d like to change about them, and a plan for making changes. Then I challenge you to come up with a plan to make yourself accountable to work on those changes. Changing habits and beliefs which moves us out of a comfort zone is difficult, but it is much more possible than we think if we have a plan and follow it over time.

In response posts to your classmates, offer specific examples of how you may have dealt with similar thinking and behaviors, lessons learned, or how you may have been affected by someone with a similar beliefs and behaviors. Include related “You Tube” or article links if they can support your point.


To earn the full 15 points, you must complete three important parts in a timely manner and the high quality work must consist of clear, complete, and insightful responses. Originality and creativity in your responses are encouraged. (See Grading and Rubrics for the Discussion Rubric.)

Cite and reference at least one empirical source for the social psych principles you highlight in your example. The purpose of the discussion is to apply the theoretical principles to practical life examples. Include a supporting reference in both your main post and in your responses to your classmates’ posts.


Initial original post due by 11:59 p.m., Thursday, CT. Respond to two or more classmates by 11:59 p.m., Sunday, CT


Literature review Unit 2

In Unit 1, you selected three (3) empirical or theoretical research studies from peer-reviewed journals that are relevant to your topic. In this unit, you will summarize the studies you selected in Unit 1.

Students have a lot of confusion about the format for the Unit 2 and Unit 4 summaries. Even though it’s just 3 of the 6 studies you will have in your final paper due in Unit 6, you will include all of the parts that will appear in the final paper:

  • all in APA format with title page, abstract, in-text references, synthesizing and summarizing the key points of the studies showing how they answer your research question, and References page.
  • Each paper will have an introduction and a summary
    • Review the week 2/4 scoring rubrics that highlight in detail how the paper will be scored
  • From the Unit 2 and Unit 4 submissions I will give you feedback on your errors so you can correct them for the final paper in Unit 6 where more points are at stake (75 versus 20).
  • When you complete the final paper you will have completed most of the work in Unit 2 and Unit 4. You will simply ensure you have a complete intro and summary as defined in the rubric and that your study summaries are organized and flow naturally.
  • Use the example papers below as your models:


The purpose of a literature review is to express to your reader the knowledge and ideas that have been established on a topic. Your literature review should describe the strengths and weaknesses in the literature on the topic you have chosen. The literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., your research question). The literature review is NOT just a descriptive list of the material available, or a regurgitation of the summaries will write in preparing your research.

A literature review must do these things:

  1. Be organized around and related directly to your research question
  2. Synthesize and organize results
  3. Identify trends or findings
  4. Identify areas of disagreement
  5. Formulate questions that need further research



Scan at each section of the article to find:

  • Research question – The reason for the study is usually found in the Introduction.
  • Hypothesis – The hypothesis is also usually found in the Introduction.
  • How the hypothesis was tested – This is usually found in the Method section.
  • Findings – Look for this information in the Results section. The figures and tables will include valuable information.
  • Findings interpretation – This is usually found in the Discussion section.

Use the margins of the paper to write key points. Underline key sentences.


When you begin writing the summary, organize it in the same order as in the study. Each summary should follow the same organization. For each item below, a suggested number of sentences have been provided as a guideline. Adjust the length accordingly depending on the content of your particular article. Remember each summary must be about 300 words.

  • State the research question and tell why you find it significant or interesting (1-3 sentences).
  • State the tested hypothesis/hypotheses (1 sentence).
  • Describe the methods. You might describe some of these (5-7 sentences):
    • Design
    • Participants
    • Procedure
    • Independent variables-what was manipulated
    • Dependent variables-what was measured
    • Method of data analysis
  • Describe the results. Did the researcher(s) find significant differences? (3-5 sentences).
  • Explain the main implications of the results. Make sure you note how the results and the interpretation of the results relate directly to the hypothesis. (2-3 sentences)


Next, you will need to put all three summaries into the final draft. The total word count for this paper is 900 words (300 words for each summary), 75 words for the intro, and 125 words for the summary. You Unit 2 and 4 papers should contain the following information:

  • Title page (required) – The title on the Title page should be your research topic or question. Include the author’s name, title of paper, and school affiliation appear on the title page. You can also include the course number, instructor name, and date of assignment.
  • Study summaries (required) (minimum of 900 words; 300 words for each peer-reviewed article)
    • Use first-level centered sub-heading. Use one center-aligned sub-heading for each article you summarize. These sub-headings are in boldface and the first letter of each major word is capitalized. They are NOT the titles of your article, but instead they are more general words that convey the overall focus/topic of the article you are writing about. These sub-headings clarify where the evaluation, discussion, and summaries of each article begins and ends within the overall paper.
    • Every paragraph that draws from a reference must have an in-text citation. If there are three or more authors only the first author is listed as following: (author last name et al., date of publication), for example (Ralston et al., 2021) and if a direct quote then: (Ralson et al., 2021, p. 17).
      • NOTE: In addition to the sub-headings, the first page of text begins with the title of the paper centered, not boldface, first letter of each major word capitalized. The page numbers appear at the top of every page of the paper
  • References page (required) – Prepare full APA citations.
    • The full citations of the selected peer-reviewed journal studies need to be listed on the References page. Every reference cited in the text must appear on the References page and every reference listed on the References page must be cited in the text. A good rule of thumb when summarizing material from a reference is that you have a text citation identifying where the information came from for every paragraph. Be sure the references are listed in alphabetical order, use the hanging indent, only the first word of article title is capitalized on the References page, and italicize the journal name. DO NOT title the References page Works Cited or Bibliography.


  • In unit 3, you will select three additional studies
  • In Unit 4, you will summarize the studies you selected in Unit 3.
  • In Unit 6, you will write the literature review.


  • First Study Summaries (20 points): Due before 11:59 p.m., Sunday, CT.


Literature Review Unit 2 and 4

Literature Review Unit 2 and 4

Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAbstractIncludes proper heading: “Abstract” – centered, initial capital, not bolded, and not italicized Brief 150-250 word comprehensive summary of paper content that lists major topics discussed in paper Describes research question being investigated, results, conclusions, and implications Abstract does NOT include general opinions or broad intro to topic but lists specific areas addressed in paper and what results support Includes key words listing at end of abstract.
2 ptsComplete – Meets all requirements. 1.5 ptsSubstantial – Violates one key requirement. 1 ptsDeveloping – Violates at least two key requirements. 0.5 ptsInsubstantial – Only addresses minimal requirements 0 ptsNot Complete – Demonstrates no understanding of requirements in this area
2 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIntroductionClearly explains research question being examined in paper Briefly discusses why research question is important – why research question has value, why student chose it, and general areas being examined – NOTE: only one para is needed for intro.
2 ptsComplete – Meets all requirements. 1.5 ptsSubstantial – Violates one key requirement 1 ptsDeveloping – Violates at least two key requirements. 0.5 ptsInsubstantial – Only addresses minimal requirements 0 ptsNot Complete – Demonstrates no understanding of requirements in this area
2 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSummarySynthesizes and analyzes findings of three research studies into broad, general conclusions explaining how findings support or fail to support research question, implications of findings, where additional research is needed.
2 ptsComplete – Meets all requirements. 1.5 ptsSubstantial – Substantial synthesis and analysis of how research studies addressed research question 1 ptsDeveloping – Summary attempts to synthesize findings and explain how they addressed research question 0.5 ptsInsubstantial – Summary includes minimal synthesis and evaluation of findings 0 ptsNot complete – Summary includes no synthesis of findings and fails to address how studies addressed research question
2 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeReference PageIncludes proper heading: “References” – centered, initial cap, not bolded, and not italicized All references are properly double-spaced, uses hanging indent Each reference contains proper information and is properly formatted (only first word of study title is capitalized, journal titles are italicized, etc.)
2 ptsComplete – Meets all requirements. 1.5 ptsSubstantial – Demonstrates high level of understanding of requirements with minimal errors 1 ptsDeveloping – Demonstrates understanding of requirements with violations of some requirements 0.5 ptsInsubstantial – Significant violations of requirements 0 ptsNot complete – Demonstrates no understanding of requirements in this area
2 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOrganizationIncludes clear findings from each of the three peer-reviewed studies – Provides concise but sufficient detail – Only includes parts of study relevant to research question -Critiques strengths and weaknesses of study Provides logical flow connecting studies to each other and the research question Flow, connection, and relationship of how the findings address the research question is clear Flow and progression of information is logical and clear Clear, distinct, and easy-to-follow relatively brief, cohesive paragraphs not exceeding ¾ of typewritten page that contain focused topic.
2 ptsComplete – Meets all requirements. 1.5 ptsSubstantial – Demonstrates substantial understanding of requirements for this area with minor discrepancies 1 ptsDeveloping – Demonstrates understanding of requirements for this area with some errors 0.5 ptsInsubstantial – Significant violations of the requirements for this area 0 ptsNot Complete – Demonstrates no understanding of requirements for this area
2 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeReferences
2 ptsComplete – Meets all requirements. 1.5 ptsDeveloping – High quality references with some discrepancies 1 ptsInsubstantial – Significant violations of requirements for this area 0.5 ptsNot Complete – Demonstrates no understanding of requirements for this area 0 ptsSubstantial – High quality references with minor discrepancies
2 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeStyleWritten primarily in third person. – Does not use 2nd person you/your. For example: “Feeling like your opinion matters is important” change to “People must believe their opinion is important.” – Minimizes use of 1st person I/we. For example: “We support our country” change to “Citizens typically support their country.” Does not use informal vernacular but uses professional writing style Does not use passive voice but uses active voice. Rather than “The survey was conducted…” write “The researchers conducted the survey…” No spelling errors No grammar errors No incomplete sentences Ensure agreement so not: “The results showed the child and their self-esteem…” but “The results showed the child and her self-esteem…” Avoided wordiness and redundancy, writing was precise and clear Proper use of punctuation In APA style by convention not: “ Red, white and blue are the colors of the American flag” but “Red, white, and blue are the colors of the American flag.” A comma is always used before the conjunction in a series. Did not begin sentence with a numeral.
3 ptsComplete – Meets all requirements. 2.5 ptsSubstantial – Student demonstrates excellent style with minor errors 2 ptsDeveloping – Student demonstrates effective style with some errors 1 ptsInsubstantial – Students demonstrates many style errors 0 ptsNot Complete – Demonstrates no understanding of style requirements
3 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA FormatAll paper was double-spaced including abstract, References page, no extra spacing at top of page, bottom of page, end of paragraphs, after title, or for sub-headings – All pages (including title page), running heads, and References page used ONLY New Times Roman font 12 – All References on Reference page are cited in text with in-text citation properly listing author’s last name, date of publication, and for direct quote a page number. All references cited in text are listed on References page. – Every para in text that in some way draws upon information from an external reference, even if not directly quoted, has a proper citation in the para for that reference. Includes proper title page that only includes running head, page number, title of paper, author name, and school affiliation (NOTE: phrase “Running head:” only appears in front of running head on title page) Each page of paper including title page is properly numbered and includes running head Proper formatting is used for subheadings. For example, first-level subheading is centered, bolded, and first letter of each word capitalized All APA margins are ½ inch top, bottom, and sides of page First sentence of each para is indented ½ inch The period at the end of a sentence goes after the citation when a citation is included. Typically punctuation goes inside quotation marks For numbers typically 10 and above use numerals and less than 10 with clear exceptions (time, money,etc – see APA manual Ch 4) are spelled out.
3 ptsComplete – Meets all requirements. 2.5 ptsSubstantial – Demonstrates excellent understanding of APA formatting standards with minor errors 2 ptsDeveloping – Demonstrates good understanding of APA formatting standards with some errors 1 ptsInsubstantial – Significant violations of APA formatting standards 0 ptsNot complete – Demonstrated no understanding of APA formatting standards
3 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLengthAs a rule of thumb write about 300 words apiece for each of 3 journal studies, 75 words for introduction, and about 125 words for findings and summary.
2 ptsComplete – Meets all requirements. 1.5 ptsSubstantial – Paper somewhat shorter or longer than required length 1 ptsDeveloping – Paper significantly shorter or longer than required length 0.5 ptsInsubstantial – Paper extremely short 0 ptsNot complete – Paper failed to address requirement
2 pts
Total Points: 20


Unit 2: Journal

  • Due Sunday by 11:59pm
  • Points 5
  • Submitting a file upload

This unit complete a personal reflection in your journal. Remember, your personal reflection does not need to be lengthy; you are only required to write one paragraph (although you are welcome to write more if you would like).

The journal should:

  • Relate the dynamics of the social theories, concepts, and processes we cover each unit to your life.
  • Use the principles to better understand a reaction you had to a particular situation or person, analyze the behavior of someone else, evaluate the dynamics of a situation, group or organization you interacted with, etc.

Remember your journal entry will only be seen by the instructor and will not be seen or shared with any other students.

Your journal entry is due at 11:59 CT Sunday.

To see the rubric for the Journal see Grading and Rubrics under Course Home.


Journal Rubric

Journal Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent
5 ptsComplete – Clear, relevant complete journal entry. 4 ptsSubstantial – Relevant journal entry; writing lacks clarity. 3 ptsDeveloping – Journal entry is generally related to the topic but need to be more direct and clear. 2 ptsInsubstantial – Journal entry is somewhat related to the topic but lacks clarity. 1 ptsPoor – Journal entry not relevant or does not contain sufficient detail. 0 ptsNot Complete – Did not complete assignment.
5 pts
Total Points: 5


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