Terrorism and Homeland Security #2 Describe the factors which shape the decision of what organizational form terrorists adopt. Compare and contrast the six organizational models of terrorist organizations.

Terrorism, Intelligence, and
Homeland Security
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To the one person in this world that greets me every morning
with a smile, is my constant and steady companion during
the day, and keeps me warm at night … my wife, Mary.
With love and affection always.
Bob
My wife is the light that helps sustain me with her faith,
compassion, caring, wisdom, and quick wit. Our journey
through this life is an adventure. Paige, for these and so
many other reasons, this book is lovingly dedicated to you.
Mike
A01_TAYL8146_02_SE_FM.indd 2 02/12/17 1:12 AM
330 Hudson Street, NY NY 10013
Robert W. Taylor
The University of Texas at Dallas
Charles R. Swanson
The University of Georgia
Terrorism, Intelligence,
and Homeland Security
Second Edition
A01_TAYL8146_02_SE_FM.indd 3 02/12/17 1:12 AM
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Taylor, Robert W., 1951- author. | Swanson, Charles R., 1942- author.
Title: Terrorism, intelligence and homeland security / Robert W. Taylor, The
University of Texas at Dallas, Charles R. Swanson, The University of Georgia.
Description: 2nd edition. | New York : Pearson Education, Inc., [2019] |
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2017057448 | ISBN 9780134818146 (alk. paper) | ISBN 0134818148
Subjects: LCSH: United States. Department of Homeland Security. |
Terrorism—United States—Prevention. | National security—United States. |
Intelligence service—United States.
Classification: LCC HV6432.4 .T39 2019 | DDC 363.325/1630973—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017057448
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A01_TAYL8146_02_SE_FM.indd 4 02/12/17 1:12 AM
v
PART I Understanding Terrorism
CHAPTER 1 Defining, Conceptualizing, and
Understanding Terrorism 1
CHAPTER 2 Political Ideology and the Historical
Roots of Terrorism 38
CHAPTER 3 Understanding the Middle East and
Islam 70
CHAPTER 4 The Rise of Radical Islam 89
PART II Typologies, Organizational Structures, Tactics,
and Critical Processes of Terrorism
CHAPTER 5 Terrorist Organizations and
Structures 119
CHAPTER 6 Critical Processes of Terrorist
Organizations 152
CHAPTER 7 Typologies of Terrorism: StateInvolved and Single or Special Issue
Movements 180
CHAPTER 8 Typologies of Terrorism: The Right
and Left Wings and Separatist or
Nationalist Movements 213
PART III Responding to the Challenges
of Terrorism
CHAPTER 9 Intelligence and Terrorism 246
CHAPTER 10 Intelligence, Terrorism, and the U.S.
Constitution 269
Brief Contents
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vi Brief Contents
CHAPTER 11 Homeland Security 298
CHAPTER 12 America’s Vulnerability to
Terrorism 334
CHAPTER 13 Emergency Management 355
PART IV Combatting Terrorism and the Future
CHAPTER 14 Combatting Terrorism 387
CHAPTER 15 Terrorism, Intelligence, and Homeland
Security: The Future 423
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vii
Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxxii
About the Authors xxxiii
PART I Understanding Terrorism
CHAPTER 1 Defining, Conceptualizing, and
Understanding Terrorism 1
Learning Objectives 1
Introduction 2
Understanding Terrorism 2
Quick Facts The Beginning of the Arab Spring 4
Quick Facts Who Are the Kurds? 5
Quick Facts Ex-Girlfriends Testify Against Skinhead 8
The Concept of Terrorism 8
Quick Facts The Assassination of Rabbi Meir Kahane 10
Box 1–1 Black Swan Events 11
Quick Facts The French Revolution, Royalty, and the Guillotine 12
Terrorism: Individual Perspective and Culture 13
Quick Facts The European Union’s Framework for Terrorism 14
Individual Perspective 14
Cultural Perspective 16
Box 1–2 The Old and New Terrorism 17
Issues in Conceptualizing, Defining, and Understanding Terrorism 17
Quick Facts Not all Muslims are Arabs 17
Box 1–3 Anwar al-Awlaki 18
Box 1–4 al-Awlaki’s Daughter Killed in Yemen Raid 18
Definitions Have Proliferated 18
The Evidence Base for Terrorism Is Insufficient 18
Terrorism Is a Contested Concept 19
Quick Facts “Paper Terrorism” 19
Terrorism Is Evocative—It Appeals to Emotion and Not Intellect 20
Box 1–5 The United States’ View of Hezbollah 20
Political Power Determines Who Are Terrorists 22
Box 1–6 Drone Use Attracts Sharp Criticism 22
Quick Facts Weaponized Drones 23
Past Prosecutorial Decisions Confuse Us 23
Box 1–7 Could the Fort Hood Shootings Have Been Prevented? 25
Box 1–8 Title 18, United States Code, Section 249, The Matthew Shepard and
James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act (HCPA, 2009) 25
Traditional and Irregular War and War Crimes 26
Traditional and Irregular War 26
War Crimes 27
Contents
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viii Contents
The Syrian War 27
Quick Facts Nazi Reprisals Later Tried as War Crimes 27
Chapter Summary 29
Review Questions 30
Critical Thinking Exercises 30
Notes 31
CHAPTER 2 Political Ideology and the Historical
Roots of Terrorism 38
Learning Objectives 38
Introduction 39
Revolutionary Ideology and Terror 39
Anarchism 40
Quick Facts The Anarchist Cookbook 41
Marxism 41
Quick Facts The Invention of Dynamite 42
The Vanguard 43
Quick Facts Guerrilla Warfare in Vietnam 44
“Che” Guevara and the Promotion of World Revolution 44
Quick Facts Che Guevara’s Death and Legacy 45
Latin American Leftist Groups 45
European Leftist Groups 47
Historical Roots of Terrorism in the Middle East 49
Box 2–1 Characteristics of the Far Left and the Right 50
Colonialism and the Mandate System 50
Box 2–2 Frantz Fanon 52
The Impact of World War II and the Establishment of Israel 53
The Palestinian Resistance Movement 55
Box 2–3 A New Era in U.S.-Israeli Relations Impacting the Palestinian
Conflict 56
Quick Facts Jewish and Arab Palestinians in Palestine 56
Box 2–4 Yasser Arafat 58
Box 2–5 The Siege at OPEC: A Collaboration of Terror 59
Quick Facts Revolutionary Physicians 61
Politics, Oil, and Terrorism in the Modern Era 61
Quick Facts The Discovery of Oil in the Middle East 62
Chapter Summary 64
Review Questions 65
Critical Thinking Exercises 65
Notes 66
CHAPTER 3 Understanding the Middle East and Islam 70
Learning Objectives 70
Introduction 71
The Middle East: Strife, Misunderstandings, and Turmoil 71
Quick Facts Soldier Sentenced to Life in Prison with No Possibility of
Parole 72
Quick Facts The Decline of al-Qaeda? 73
The Middle East: Geography, History, and Culture 73
Americans Ask: “Why Attack Us?” 73
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Contents ix
Box 3–1 Who Was Usama Bin Laden? 75
The Prophet Muhammad and the Beginning of Islam 76
Box 3–2 Women’s Rights in Saudi Arabia and Iran 77
Quick Facts Hashimite 78
The Emergence of Two Muslim Traditions: Sunni and Shi’a 78
Quick Facts Islam’s Ummah and Caliphate 79
The Concept of “Jihad” 80
Islam and Terrorism 81
Quick Facts Eric Rudolph, David Koresh, and Jim Jones 82
The Five Pillars of Islam 82
Pillar 1: Testimony of Faith (Shahada) 82
Pillar 2: Prayer (Salat) 83
Pillar 3: Giving Alms (Zakat) 83
Pillar 4: Fasting (Sawm) 84
Pillar 5: Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) 84
Quick Facts The Hajj 84
Chapter Summary 85
Review Questions 86
Critical Thinking Questions 86
Notes 87
CHAPTER 4 The Rise of Radical Islam 89
Learning Objectives 89
Introduction 90
Fundamentalism 90
Selective Interpretation of Scripture and Doctrine 90
Box 4–1 Memphis and the Three Parks 90
Misinterpretation of Symbolic Words 91
The Justification and Use of Violence Called by God 91
Charismatic Leadership 92
The Political Dimension of Islamic Fundamentalism 93
The Arab Revolution 93
The Historical Roots of Islamic Fundamentalism 94
Box 4–2 The Evolution of “Arab Spring”: Chaos in Syria 94
Quick Facts The Arab Spring (Timeline) 95
Islamic Ideologies 95
Quick Facts Mustafa Kemal Ataturk 96
The Ideologies of Islamic Fundamentalists 96
The Wahhabi Movement 97
Box 4–3 The Founding of the House of Saud: The Holy Alliance of Abd alWahhab and Muhammad Ibn Saud 98
The Muslim Brotherhood and the Beginning of the Salafi Movement 99
The Great Philosopher: Sayyid Qutb 101
Quick Facts Sayyid Qutb 101
The Rise of Palestinian “Jihad” 102
Salafism 104
Quick Facts The Evolution of Terrorist Groups 105
Jihadist Salafism: The Ideology of al-Qaeda 106
The Islamic State Today 108
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x Contents
Quick Facts How Big Is the Islamic State? 109
A New Caliphate 109
Box 4–4 The Leadership of Caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi 110
Box 4–5 Ruthless Violence and the Islamic State 111
Khomeinism 112
Hezbollah 113
Chapter Summary 113
Review Questions 115
Critical Thinking Exercises 115
Notes 116
PART II Typologies, Organizational Structures, Tactics,
and Critical Processes of Terrorism
CHAPTER 5 Terrorist Organizations and Structures 119
Learning Objectives 119
Introduction 120
Dilemmas of Terrorist Organization 120
Action versus Secrecy 120
Growth versus Control 120
Recruitment versus Retention 121
Box 5–1 Retention in IS 122
Success versus Longevity 122
Resource Acquisition versus Constituencies 123
Quick Facts The Islamic State and Recruiting 123
Terrorist Organizational Models 124
Lone Wolf Organizational Model 124
Quick Facts The Lone Wolf Attack on Canada’s Parliament 124
Quick Facts The White Supremacist and the Sikhs 127
Box 5–2 The Carnage of “Loners” 128
Quick Facts How Alone Is a Lone Wolf? 129
Cell Organizational Models 130
Quick Facts A Homegrown Jihadist Cell’s Activities 130
Box 5–3 Terrorism and Passport Fraud 131
Quick Facts A Hezbollah Fund-Raising Cell 131
Network Organizational Models 132
The Wheel Network 133
Hierarchical Organizational Model 133
Umbrella Organizational Model 134
Virtual Organizational Model 135
Target Selection and Attacks 136
Quick Facts Center of Gravity, System Disruption, and Terrorist
Selection of Targets 137
Quick Facts Why Do Terrorists Attack Tourists? 138
Suicide Bombing Attacks 138
Quick Facts The Changing Face of Suicide Bombers 139
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Contents xi
Quick Facts A Donkey and Dogs Used as Suicide Bombers 140
Box 5–4 Suicide Bombing and the Shahid: Of Islamic Martyrdom 141
Quick Facts Beyond the Six Bounties: Payments to the Family of Suicide
Bombers 141
How Do Terrorist Organizations End? 141
Chapter Summary 143
Review Questions 143
Critical Thinking Exercises 144
Notes 144
CHAPTER 6 Critical Processes of Terrorist
Organizations 152
Learning Objectives 152
Introduction 153
Terrorist Motivations and Capabilities 153
Quick Facts Two Different Terrorist Tactics: Occupy the Target
versus a Raid 155
Terrorist Organizations as Learning Organizations 155
The Two Essential Sets of Terrorist Organizational Tools 156
The Four Organizational Tools 157
The First Organizational Tool: Ideology 157
The Second Organizational Tool: Leadership 159
The Third Organizational Tool: Recruiting 159
Quick Facts A Sampling of the Categories of Islamic Unbelievers 160
Box 6–1 Recruiting Videos on the Internet 162
The Fourth Organizational Tool: Publicity 163
Quick Facts No Mercy 163
The Six Operational Tools 164
The First Operational Tool: A Command and Control System 164
The Second Operational Tool: Acquiring Weapons 164
The Third Operational Tool: An Operational Space 165
Box 6–2 Sharia-Controlled Zones 167
The Fourth Operational Tool: Training 168
Box 6–3 Training and the Islamic State (IS) Fighters 168
The Fifth Operational Tool: Intelligence and Counterintelligence 169
The Sixth Operational Tool: Finance 169
Hawalas 170
BitCoin and PayPal 171
Narco-Terrorism 171
Quick Facts Pablo Escobar 171
Traditional for-Profit Crimes 172
Quick Facts The Logic of Terrorist and Criminal Cooperation 173
Sponsorship, Donations, Charities, Zakat, and Sadaqah 173
Convergence 174
Chapter Summary 174
Review Questions 174
Critical Thinking Exercises 175
Notes 175
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xii Contents
CHAPTER 7 Typologies of Terrorism: State-Involved and
Single or Special Issue Movements 180
Learning Objectives 180
Introduction 181
A Political-Orientation-Based Typology: The Four Waves of Terrorism 181
The Anarchist Wave 181
Box 7–1 Assassinations since the Anarchist Wave 182
The Anti-Colonial Wave 182
The New Left Wave 182
The Religious Wave 183
Defining Religious Violence 184
The Islamic State: The Drive to Establish a Worldwide
Caliphate 185
Box 7–2 Views of the Iraqi War, 2003–2016 186
IS Sources of Revenue 188
Quick Facts U.S. Police Officer Arrested for Financially Aiding
Islamic State 189
Motivation-Based Typologies 189
State-Involved Terrorism 189
State Terrorism 189
Box 7–3 Leaders of Totalitarian Governments that Conducted State
Terrorism: Adolph Hitler, Josef Stalin, and Mao Tse-Tung 191
Quick Facts “An Act of Charity” 192
State-Enabled Terrorism 193
Quick Facts Ungoverned Space 193
State-Sponsored Terrorism 195
Box 7–4 The Assassination Attempt on Pope John Paul II 198
State-Perpetrated/International Terrorism 199
Single-Issue or Special-Issue Threats and Extremism 200
Quick Facts Who Could Be a Homegrown Violent Extremist (HVE)? 200
Box 7–5 Hactivists Fighting IS 201
The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and the Earth Liberation
Front (ELF) 201
Box 7–6 Greenpeace: Peaceful Protest or Eco-Terrorism? 202
Anti-Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Groups 203
Anti-Technologists 203
Quick Facts The Unabomber’s Manifesto 203
Anti-Abortionists 204
Chapter Summary 204
Review Questions 206
Critical Thinking Exercises 206
Notes 206
CHAPTER 8 Typologies of Terrorism: The Right and Left
Wings and Separatist or Nationalist Movements 213
Learning Objectives 213
Introduction 214
The Right Wing in the United States 214
Quick Facts The Christian Patriot Movement 214
The International Right Wing 216
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Contents xiii
Quick Facts Soldiers of Odin USA 216
Quick Facts Right-Wing Violence in Sweden 217
Issues in Defining the Right Wing 217
Quick Facts 218
Right-Wing Attacks and Ideology in America 218
Box 8–1 Anti-Immigration Attacks and Groups 219
The Three Major Ideological Right-Wing Movements in the United
States 219
Box 8–2 Dan Inouye 221
Box 8–3 The Posse Comitatus and Sovereign Citizen Movements 227
Quick Facts Republic of The United States 228
Quick Facts The New American Right-Wing Alliance Today 230
The Left-Wing Movement 230
Quick Facts The Black Panther Party 231
Quick Facts Patty Hearst and the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) 231
Quick Facts Left Antifa vs. Alt-Right 232
Separatist or Nationalist Movements 233
Quick Facts Chinese Separatists/Terrorists Attack 233
Case Study: Ireland 234
Quick Facts Instructions to the Black and Tans 236
Chapter Summary 238
Review Questions 239
Critical Thinking Exercises 239
Notes 239
PART III Responding to the Challenges of Terrorism
CHAPTER 9 Intelligence and Terrorism 246
Learning Objectives 246
Introduction 247
Defining Intelligence and Counterintelligence 247
Quick Facts The Son Tay Raid: Well Executed, but an Intelligence
Failure 248
Quick Facts Counter Forensics Manual 249
Overview of the U.S. Intelligence Community 249
The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) 250
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 251
Box 9–1 Spies, Secret Messages, and Steganography 252
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 253
Blurred Lines and Conflicting Roles 253
Box 9–2 President Donald Trump and the Intelligence Community:
An Uneasy Alliance 254
The National Security Agency (NSA) 255
Intelligence and Cyberterrorism 256
Box 9–3 The Islamic State (IS) and the Potential for Cyberterrorism 257
Other Agencies within the Intelligence Community 258
The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) 258
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) 258
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) 258
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xiv Contents
State Bureau of Intelligence and Research 258
U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Intelligence and
Analysis 258
Intelligence at the State and Local Level 259
The Intelligence Process and Cycle 259
Quick Facts Data Fusion 260
Fusion Centers 261
U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Fusion Centers 262
Chapter Summary 264
Review Questions 265
Critical Thinking Exercises 265
Notes 266
CHAPTER 10 Intelligence, Terrorism, and the U.S.
Constitution 269
Learning Objectives 269
Introduction 270
The USA PATRIOT Act 270
The Reauthorized PATRIOT Act—2006 271
The Reauthorized PATRIOT Act—2011 271
The Freedom Act, 2015 271
Quick Facts 272
Constitutional Rights and the USA PATRIOT Act 272
The First Amendment 272
The Fourth Amendment 274
Quick Facts The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) 275
The Fifth and Sixth Amendments 277
Box 10–1 The Snowden Leak 278
Balancing Acts: Issues for Modern Intelligence 278
NYPD and Intelligence 278
Box 10–2 NYPD Intelligence Unit Infiltrated Activist Group 280
The Military and Policing Functions: Posse Comitatus 280
The Use of Domestic Drones 281
Box 10–3 Domestic Drones and Crime Fighting 282
Intelligence and Torture 283
Quick Facts The Lingering Results of Enhanced Interrogation
Techniques (EITs) 284
Box 10–4 The Future of Enhanced Interrogation Techniques (EITs)
in the Trump Era 286
“Outing” Intelligence: Leaks and Insecurity 286
Quick Facts PRISM 290
Box 10–5 Reflections on Edward Snowden 290
Chapter Summary 291
Review Questions 292
Critical Thinking Exercises 293
Notes 293
CHAPTER 11 Homeland Security 298
Learning Objectives 298
Introduction 299
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Contents xv
Box 11–1 President Bush Learns of the 9/11 Attacks 299
The Department of Homeland Security: The Early Years 300
The Present Organization of DHS 303
The Quadrennial Homeland Security Review (QHSR) 304
Box 11–2 Decentralized Terrorist Attack in Garland, Arizona 305
Box 11–3 U.S. Customs Seizes Counterfeit Goods 306
Strategic Priorities for Homeland Security 306
The Core Missions of DHS 306
Mission 1: Preventing Terrorism and Enhancing Security 307
Mission 2: Secure and Manage Our Boarders 307
Mission 3: Enforce and Administer Our Immigration Law 307
Mission 4: Safeguard and Secure Cyberspace 307
Box 11–4 New Trends in Illegal Immigration 308
Mission 5: Ensure Resilience to Disasters 308
DHS: Missions and Performance Management 308
DHS Performance Management 308
DHS Performance Evaluation 309
DHS Funding 310
Major DHS Agencies 311
Customs and Border Protection (CBP) 311
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 315
Box 11–5 Cartels, Coyotes, Rape Trees, and Homeland Security 315
Quick Facts 316
Quick Facts The Twin Fire Disasters of 1871 318
Quick Facts Examples of Extreme Mass Casualties 319
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) 319
Transportation Security Administration (TSA) 320
Box 11–6 Three Cases on the Road to Airport Security 321
Quick Facts What the TSA Protects and Checks Annually 321
U.S. Secret Service (USSS) 322
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) 324
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) 325
Quick Facts Who Was Jaime Zapata? 326
DHS and Other Homeland Security Units 326
Chapter Summary 327
Review Questions 327
Critical Thinking Exercises 327
Notes 328
CHAPTER 12 America’s Vulnerability to Terrorism 334
Learning Objectives 334
Introduction 335
The Impact of 9/11 and the USA PATRIOT Act 336
The All-Hazards Model 336
The Role of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 336
The Role of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 337
Quick Facts The National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) 338
The National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) 338
Communications Sector 339
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xvi Contents
Quick Facts The Impact of Major Hurricanes in 2017 340
Emergency Services Sector 341
Energy Sector 341
Quick Facts Blackout 341
Box 12–1 Asymmetrical Attacks on the Energy Sector 342
Dams Sector 342
Box 12–2 Terrorists Are Not the Only Threat to the Dams Sector 343
Nuclear Sector 343
Water Sector 343
Chemical Sector 343
Commercial Facilities Sector 344
Healthcare and Public Health Sector 344
Box 12–3 The First World Trade Center Terrorist Attack in 1993: BombMaking Material Came from Local Chemical Plant 344
Box 12–4 The 2013 Boston Marathon Bombing 345
Quick Facts The Commercial Facilities Sector 345
Food and Agriculture Sector 346
Critical Manufacturing Sector 346
Quick Facts 347
Transportation Sector 347
Quick Facts The First Skyjacking 347
Government Facilities Sector 348
Banking and Finance Sector 348
Defense Industrial Base Sector 348
Information Technology (IT) Sector 348
Box 12–5 Foreign Cyber Threats: Information Warfare as a Threat
to Critical U.S. Infrastructure 349
Quick Facts Russian Hacking Causes Financial Losses, May Have
Influenced U.S. Voters 349
Chapter Summary 350
Review Questions 350
Critical Thinking Exercises 351
Notes 351
CHAPTER 13 Emergency Management 355
Learning Objectives 355
Introduction 356
Categories of Threats/Hazards 356
Box 13–1 Saddam Hussein and Syria’s Use of “Poison Gas” 357
The Severity Continuum 358
Quick Facts The Hazards of America’s Grain Elevators and Bins 359
Box 13–2 Mutual Aid Agreements 360
Pre-Planning and Core Capabilities 362
The Recovery Continuum 363
The Evolution of Emergency Management 364
Quick Facts Clara Barton and The American Red Cross 365
World War I to the 1930s 365
The Impact of World War II 367
Box 13–3 The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) 367
The 1950s and 1960s 368
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Contents xvii
Box 13–4 Were 1950s Bomb Shelter Builders the Ancestors of Today’s
Doomsday Preppers? 369
The 1970s and the Emergence of FEMA 369
The 1980s to Present 369
Weapons of Mass Destruction and CBRNE Attacks 370
The U.S. Military and CBRNE Attacks 371
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 372
The National Incident Management System 372
The NIMS Template 373
Quick Facts The U.S. Coast Guard National Strike Force 376
The Incident Command System (ICS) 377
The Emergency Operation Center (EOC) 378
The National Preparedness System: How It All Fits Together 379
The National Preparedness Goal 379
The National Preparedness Report 380
Chapter Summary 380
Review Questions 382
Critical Thinking Exercises 382
Notes 383
PART IV Combatting Terrorism and the Future
CHAPTER 14 Combatting Terrorism 387
Learning Objectives 387
Introduction 388
National Security Policy and Strategy 388
National Security Policy 388
National Security Strategy Formulation 388
A Military Subordinate to Civil Authority 390
Anti-Terrorism and Counterterrorism 391
Quick Facts The Bardo Museum and the Other IS Attacks That Followed 391
Quick Facts Fight Terrorism License Plates 392
Overview of Anti-Terrorism 392
Anti-Terrorism Organizations and Activities 392
U.S. Department of Treasury 392
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 393
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) 393
State and Local Law Enforcement 394
U.S. Attorney’s Office 394
Quick Facts Anti-Terrorism Phone Applications (Apps) 394
Transportation Security Administration (TSA) 395
U.S. Department of Energy 395
U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) 395
Box 14–1 NORTHCOM Civil Support Following Hurricane Katrina 396
U.S. Marine Corps 396
Overview of Counterterrorism 396
Counterterrorism and Forms of Military Action 397
Quick Facts The Seal Team 6 Yemen Raid 398
Quick Facts The FBI HRT 399
Quick Facts The Term “Operator” 400
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xviii Contents
Box 14–2 Hostage and Crisis Negotiations … and Terrorism 400
Counterterrorism Organizations and Activities 402
Central Intelligence Agency—Special Activities Division 402
Federal Bureau of Investigation—Hostage Rescue Team 403
U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) 403
Box 14-3 Operation Eagle Claw: Anatomy of a Disaster 404
The FBI and Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) 404
U.S. Army Special Forces—“Green Berets” 405
U.S. Army—Delta Force 406
U.S. Navy—SEAL Teams 406
Quick Facts Ghillie Suits 407
U.S. Army—75th Ranger Regiment 408
Foreign Counterterrorism Organizations 409
Great Britain—22nd Special Air Service (SAS) Regiment 410
Germany—GSG9 (Grenzschutzgruppe 9) 411
Israel—Sayeret Matkal, Shayetet-13, and Mista’arvim 411
Chapter Summary 412
Review Questions 416
Critical Thinking Exercises 416
Notes 417
CHAPTER 15 Terrorism, Intelligence, and Homeland
Security: The Future 423
Learning Objectives 423
Introduction 424
Trends in Terrorist Activities 424
Box 15–1 Predicting Terror Attacks 426
Quick Facts Terrorism and the United States 426
Homegrown and Lone Wolf Terrorists 427
Box 15–2 Social Media and Jihad 428
Crude Devices and Non-Sophisticated Weapons 428
Al-Qaeda, Islamic State, Fractionalization, and the Rest of the World 429
Quick Facts Multiple Terrorist Attacks in Spain Shows Links Between
al-Qaeda and Islamic State 431
Transportation Hubs and Other Terrorist Targets 431
Quick Facts Low-Tech Terrorist Attacks 433
Future Attacks on Critical Infrastructure 433
Box 15–3 Has the Potential for Weapons of Mass Destruction Been
Exaggerated? 433
The Role of Modern Media in Terrorism 434
Strategy, Policy, and Beyond 436
Box 15–4 Fake News, the Media, and Terrorism 437
Chapter Summary 438
Review Questions 439
Critical Thinking Exercises 439
Notes 440
Glossary G-1
Index I-1
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xix
Terrorism—Intelligence—Homeland Security are three subjects that often dominate today’s
news events. No other issues are so prominent, so compelling, or so critically important to
our communities and our nation than these three separate but interconnected topics. Nothing is more contemporary.
We are still dealing with the lingering effects of the attacks on September 11, 2001, an
event that clearly changed our world forever. On that day, our security weaknesses were
exploited, our vulnerability was exposed, and our fear became real. Approaching two decades after 9/11, we continue working to improve the security of our homeland from attack,
whether these attacks are from aircraft hijackings, the use of biological agents, or more
sophisticated cyber attempts to infiltrate crucial infrastructures. In this effort, we have sent
special operations troops to quell threats and train countries in responding to terrorism.
These countries include Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, Yemen, Algeria, Somalia, Albania, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, and the Philippines. More broadly, during 2017, special operations troops were
active in 138 countries.
We have expanded our intelligence-gathering and analysis capabilities to filter even our
largest social media sites. We have also developed entirely new departments of government
to protect us, and to respond to emergencies whether they be caused by man-made terrorist events or natural disasters. Billions of dollars have been spent in this effort to make
us safer. More important, our zeal to be safer and more secure has tested the limits of our
government and the basic democratic values of “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”
that underscore our country. Nothing is more important.
Hence, the decision to write this book was an easy one, inasmuch as we had previously collaborated for years on other coauthored books (Criminal Investigation and Police Administration: Structures: Processes, and Behavior). It was also an opportunity
to contribute to the discussion of some of the most important issues of our times. More
important, we thought there was room for a new book. In looking at the existing works,
they seemed somewhat disproportionately concentrated on historical aspects of terrorism
without discussing it sufficiently in a modern context. Other volumes focused on terrorism
without addressing homeland security or didn’t give enough attention to the basics, such
as “How did we get here?” Although interesting, edited volumes were typically too narrow
in scope.
We have written a book that is historical, contemporary, and exciting while also interrelating terrorism, intelligence, and homeland security. Our goal was to write a book that
focused on students—one that serves as an introductory textbook to this complex set of
topics. In doing that, we also produced a book that instructors will find easy to use.
This book has four elements that are of the utmost importance:
1. The book is written in a clear and concise manner, aimed at piquing student
interest and learning. We stay focused on our readers, providing them with both
interesting content and thought-provoking features. Embedded in the content are
Information Links to Internet sites that contain extended insights on important
topics. We wrote many case studies to illustrate chapter content and make it come
alive; and we filled each chapter with interesting pieces of information that were
directly aimed at sparking discussion. For instance, each Box ends with a compelling
question, and forces students to think about and discuss critical issues presented in
each chapter, while Quick Facts provide short doses of information that spark interest in the subject under discussion.
2. The book is compelling. This book is carefully researched and presents content from
the latest findings in the literature. As important, interviews with key leaders in the
Preface
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intelligence field, heads of departments, agents within the FBI and members of local
task forces, as well as friends returning from battlefields in Iraq and Afghanistan provided keen insight into issues addressing the reality of combatting terrorism. Hence,
the book represents not only a strong scholarly approach to the study of terrorism, but
also incorporates the real-world experience of federal agents, police officers, and soldiers tasked with preventing the next terrorist attack on our country. In addition, the
photographs in each chapter were personally selected by the authors after careful attention to detailed research. To the best of our knowledge, none of these images have
previously been used in a college textbook. The pictures command attention and are
accompanied by carefully written captions that tell a story, adding value to each image.
3. The book is simultaneously historical and contemporary. We believed it was
essential for readers to understand the background of people, ideas, organizations,
and movements. At the same time, readers are provided with current information
about new issues in the field. This approach provides readers with a unified and
cutting-edge understanding of terrorism, intelligence, and homeland security
and their interrelationship. For instance, readers learn not only about the Islamic
State, a newly emerged terrorist organization in the Middle East, but also about the
historical factors that led to its development and how the international community is
responding to this new international threat.
4. The book is well organized and has unique chapters. The book is divided into four
separate parts. Part One provides a solid framework in which to understand terrorism. Because some significant threats originate in the Middle East, we provide strong
chapters that explain the geography, history, culture, and religion of this complex
area. We give significant time to understanding the complexities of Islam and the
rise of radicalization in chapters that are well written and easy to read. Part Two
focuses on terrorist groups, their organization, and their critical processes. These are
important foundational chapters that provide unique interdisciplinary discussions
on terrorist structures and strategies such as recruitment and retention of members,
lone wolf strategies, and suicide bombing attacks. We provide strong chapters that
differentiate among state-involved terrorism, single-issue terrorism, separatist or nationalist movements, and terrorism from the left and right wings. In Part Three, we
discuss America’s vulnerabilities to terrorism and present the governmental agencies
that are tasked with preventing terrorism. We discuss the intelligence community
and the myriad Constitutional issues that have sparked controversy in our country
through the USA PATRIOT Act (e.g., clandestine spying on U.S. citizens, the use of
drones, “enhanced” interrogation techniques and the abuse or torture of prisoners,
and use of the military in preventing terrorism domestically). In every case, we tried
to provide a balanced approach to understanding the issues that we face as a nation,
providing security from real threats while still safeguarding civil and personal liberties. And finally, in Part Four, we define the forces that combat terrorism on a daily
basis. In a one-of-a-kind chapter, we focus on those agencies that have anti-terrorism
or counterterrorism as part of their primary missions. Again, the emphasis here is on
clarity and the provision of pinpoint information in an easy-to-read format.
New to the Second Edition • The design has been updated with a number of enhanced learner experiences to
include new box items, Quick Facts, key terms, web links, chapter review questions,
and critical thinking exercises.
• New interactive videos, point-counterpoint videos, and reader-based survey questions via interactive learning environment software that accompany the second edition highlight new student learning methodologies.
• Numerous additions have been made throughout the book to reflect significant
changes in the Middle East and other geographic areas where terrorism has been a
continual issue and problem.
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• An expanded and updated introduction to Chapter 1 sets the tone for the entire book,
with a special focus on the War in Syria and the emergence of the Islamic State.
• New Quick Facts on the decline of al-Qaeda and the rise of the Islamic State highlight Chapter 3.
• Chapter 4 reveals a new and focused section on the Islamic State today.
• Chapter 5 has new and updated material on the Lone Wolf Organizational Model and
carnage resulting from such attacks in recent years.
• New box items on Islamic State recruiting videos via the Internet, and training of IS
fighters highlights the new additions in Chapter 6.
• Better understanding the philosophical, ideological goals and meteoric rise of a worldwide caliphate presented by the Islamic State marks an interesting new section in
Chapter 7.
• New material on the emergences of the Hammerskin Nation, the rise of the Neo-Nazi
movement in the United States, a discussion of new incidents involving Sovereign
Citizen groups, and a new right wing alliance are reflected in Chapter 8.
• Two new box items discussing the impact of the election of President Donald Trump
on the intelligence community, and the new potential for cyberterrorism present by
the Islamic State highlight Chapter 9.
• Chapter 12 provides new discussion on the organization of the Department of
Homeland Security (DHS), the five core mission of DHS, and the impact of the
Quadrennial Homeland Security Review.
• Introduction of the THIRA Model (Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk
Assessment) and the Recovery Continuum marks new material on emergency
management in Chapter 13.
• A completely new introduction on national security policy and strategies, expanded
discussion on the role of the military in both antiterrorism and counterterrorism missions, and the introduction of hostage and crisis negotiations as a tool to managed
critical terrorist incidents spotlight new additions to Chapter 14.
• Chapter 15 highlights include updated material on the START Study, a new Quick
Facts on terrorism data in the United States, two new box items focusing on the
media, social media, fake news, and terrorism, and a focused discussion on recent
low-tech, unsophisticated terrorist attacks aimed at mass carnage in the international and domestic communities.
Organization
This section is not a table of contents, but rather an informative dialogue highlighting each
chapter of the book.
We did not write a comprehensive history of terrorism chapter, although the first and
second chapters have an overview of some of its milestones. It seemed more useful to write
shorter history sections in the context of the content of chapters, linking the past and the
present together to bring meaning to contemporary issues. This second edition has many
new and updated sections, photographs, informational links, box items, quick facts, and
case histories. A number of learning objectives and related features have been rewritten to
reflect these changes.
Chapter 1: Defining, Conceptualizing, and Understanding
Terrorism
This chapter introduces the subject of terrorism and some of the topics and issues that are
explored in more detail in later chapters. In the introduction section, reasons why it is important or perhaps essential to understand terrorism are identified, for example, challenges
such as the emerging tactic of system disruption and Black Swan events that are so different
they will be difficult to predict, but will impact us nonetheless.
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There was terrorism before we had a name for it. To this day scholars, governments, and
international organizations, such as the United Nations, struggle to find a common definition
of terrorism. One barrier to understanding terrorism is the surplus of competing and conflicting definitions. The chapter also addresses how our individual and cultural perspectives
affect how we think about terrorism and create barriers to understanding it. The chapter
concludes by contrasting war and war crimes, irregular war, and terrorism.
Chapter 2: Political Ideology and the Historical
Roots of Terrorism
Chapter 2 is a foundational chapter for the entire book. It represents a significant work on
the historical development of terrorist ideology. The chapter begins with a discussion of
political ideology as the general belief system on which society is based and the mechanisms people undertake to achieve this perspective. Terrorism has a direct effect on the
social structure of society. People depend on a framework of informal and formal rules
that foster mutual respect and trust. Terrorism substitutes this trust with insecurity and
fear. Essentially, terrorism attacks the very bases of social order, culture, and government.
Chapter 2 explores the political and social theory that motivates certain groups—from the
genesis of revolutionary ideology and terror to contemporary hate crime and radical Islamic
movements. We start with the historic left-wing ideologies of socialism and communism as
expressed by Karl Marx, Fredrick Engels, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and Vladimir Lenin in
Europe and Russia at the end of the 19th century and trace ideological ties to more contemporary perspectives of revolution in South America and the Middle East as expressed
by Che Guevara, Carlos Marighella, and Sayyid Qutb. A focus on the development of Latin
American leftist groups like FARC and ELN in Colombia, the Tupamaros in Uruguay, and
Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) in Peru brings our discussion to the concept of a “guerrilla war” as part of a revolutionary strategy in some cases, and as terrorism in others. We
also explore the development of the “new left” in Europe during the 1960s, including the
Red Brigades, the Red Army Faction (also known as the Baader-Meinhof Gang), the Revolutionary Cells, and its feminist-leaning auxiliary group, the Red Zora, bringing us full circle
from the inception of left-wing, political revolutionary thought to more contemporary antiimperialist and anticolonial ideology.
The final part of this chapter focuses on the historical roots of terrorism in the Middle
East, from early anticolonial ideology and the mandate system developed at the end of
World War I to the establishment of Israel and the beginning of the Palestinian Resistance
movement. The chapter sets up Chapter 3 by exploring the early tenets of oil, politics, and
radical Islam in the modern era.
Chapter 3: Understanding the Middle East and Islam
This book has five sets of chapters that are so closely intertwined we think of them as “twin
chapters.” Chapters 3 and 4 are the first set of the “twins.” In Chapter 3, we start with the
assertion that knowing some history of the Middle East, a few laws, and a handful of definitions is not sufficient grounding to assert one has a grasp on the Middle East and Islam.
The chapter provides a basic understanding of Islam, but there is more to be learned. To
fully understand the Middle East, you must also fully understand Islam. Illustratively, some
critics maintain that the “problem” with Islam is that it has never undergone a reformation,
as has Christianity. The Muslim view is there has never been a need for it. In their view,
the Archangel Gabriel revealed the Word of God to Muhammad and he, in turn, faithfully
recorded it. While ideological change in Islam has not been an historical issue, certainly
leadership after the death of the Prophet has been. Understanding the emergence of two
Muslim traditions, Sunni and Shi’a, provides a basis for comprehending not only the historical differences between these two groups, but also sets a foundation on which to grasp more
contemporary concepts of radical Islam and the Islamic State caliphate that now threaten
the entire Middle East.
The vast majority of Muslims in America are good and decent people who practice their
religion peacefully. Some Islamic religious leaders have twisted the meanings of Islamic
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concepts. For instance, “jihad” actually refers to an individual’s struggle to overcome adversity and submit to the will of God. Jihad addresses an inner, spiritual struggle against evil,
not a war against others. The twisted definition of jihad fuels hatred, violence, and grisly
actions, such as the recent beheadings and executions of American journalists, English aid
workers, and others by members of the Islamic State.
The concluding section of the chapter ends with an explanation of Islam’s five pillars
of faith: (1) Shahada (testimony of faith); (2) Salat (prayer); (3) Zakat (giving a portion
of your annual income to those in need and to support Islam); (4) Sawm (fasting); and (5)
Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
Chapter 4: The Rise of Radical Islam
Islam is one of the world’s great religions. Like Judaism and Christianity, it is one of the three
primary monotheistic religions, meaning it is a religion that believes in one all-loving and
powerful God. The histories of these three great religions are inseparably intertwined. So
what events took place within Islam that led to such a vast radicalization of basic principles
within the religion? This chapter explores that change and focuses on the political dimension of Islamic fundamentalism. It analyzes the radicalization of Islam in both traditions,
Sunni and Shia (Shiite). Much of the discussion is centered on the Arab Revolution beginning after World War I and culminating in the Arab Spring of 2010, the ideologies that form
major radical movements in today’s Sunni tradition—the Wahhabi movement, the Muslim
Brotherhood, the Salafi movement, and the Jihadist-Salafi movement. Each is discussed in
terms of their primary philosophical leader and the contemporary evolution of the movement today as visible throughout the Middle East.
The radicalization of Sunni Islam has been an historic process, led by a number of key
individuals. The chapter is laced with boxed items and commentary that provide a basic
understanding of the historical complexities associated with radical Islam as proscribed
by philosophical leaders such as Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Hassan al-Banna, Sayyid
Qutb, Ahmed Yassin, Abdul Rahman, Ahman al-Zawahiri, Usama bin Laden, Abu Musab
al-Zarqawi, and Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, as well as active Sunni groups, such as the Palestinian Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas), al-Qaeda, al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
(AQIP), Abu Sayaaf, and the Islamic State. The latter group, the Islamic State, is given additional attention in this chapter, particularly focusing on the ruthless violence stemming
from extremist interpretations of early Muslim ideology originating from Wahhabi and Salafi
doctrine. Known as Takfiri Practices, or the excommunication from Islam, the radical Islamic State claims the right to label other Muslims to whom they object as “unbelievers,”
justifying the violent torture and execution (beheadings, crucifixions, rape, burning, hanging, and shooting) of innocent individuals throughout the Middle East.
The final part of the chapter addresses the radicalization of the Shia (or Shiite) tradition
within Islam, concentrating on the ideologies expressed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
during the Iranian Revolution of 1979. His thoughts provide the ideological foundation for
today’s Islamic Republic of Iran. The other primary Shia group discussed in this chapter is
that of Hezbollah, under the leadership of Hassan Nasrallah, a group active throughout the
world but centered in Lebanon.
Chapter 5: Terrorist Organizations and Structures
Chapters 5 and 6 are the second set of “twin chapters” in that they are interrelated: Both
focus on terrorist organizations. Chapter 5 largely deals with how these groups are arranged and Chapter 6 scrutinizes the processes with which terrorist organizations operate. Organizational theory is a tool that explains how formal organizations are structured
and relate to their environment. It can be applied to such disparate entities as General
Motors, the New York Times, Girl Scouts, concentration camps, Red Cross, Hamas, and
the Department of Defense. In Chapter 5, organizational theory is the lens by which we
examine and explain the structure of terrorist organizations. We do so without requiring
readers to learn, or be conversant with, organizational theory because this book is on a
different subject.
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The application of organizational theory to terrorist structures can provide important
information about them. It reveals how authority is distributed, how work will be accomplished, and some indication of their relative importance of leaders.
Other topics in Chapter 5 include dilemmas of terrorist organizations, types of terrorist
cells, organizational structures used by terrorists (such as hierarchical, umbrella, and virtual), the selection of targets, suicide bombing attacks, and how terrorist organizations end.
The literature on how terrorist organizations end does not contemplate a movement that
ends in a caliphate, despite the Islamic State’s aspirations.
Chapter 6: Critical Processes of Terrorist Organizations
In this chapter we shift our analysis from how terrorist organizations are organized to essentially asking the question, “What does it take for a terrorist organization to be successful
administratively and operationally?”
Like many other types of organizations, terrorists need administrative or organizational
tools, which are the things they must accomplish to foster the organization’s viability. To be
operationally successful terrorists must have command of these operational tools. Chapter
6 covers these topics with examples and case studies. One of the organizational tools discussed is the financing of the group, with special attention given to funding via hawalas,
narcotics trafficking, and other criminal activities, sponsorships and donations, charities,
and even the trading of Bitcoins.
Chapter 7: Typologies of Terrorism: State-Involved and
Single or Special Issue Movements
Chapters 7 and 8 are another set of “twin chapters,” both dealing with typologies of terrorism. To avoid having one very long chapter we wrote two shorter chapters. We logically
grouped movements in those chapters not by geography, but by their ideologies. Typologies
logically group things, such as terrorist movements. In contrast, taxonomies create groups
based on statistical analysis. We used typologies because there is insufficient data to create
full taxonomies of terrorism. The history of each identified terrorist group is covered, and
Chapters 7 and 8 are replete with examples and case studies to provide concrete meaning.
Chapter 7 scrutinizes four types of terrorism in which the political state is involved: state
terrorism, state-enabled terrorism, state-sponsored terrorism, and state-perpetrated/international terrorism. By and large, single/special-issue terrorism is still a concern, but toward
the lower end of the threat scale. “Fading” may be a reasonable description of these movements, which include the Animal Liberation Front (ALF), Earth Liberation Front (ALF),
and Anti-Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) groups, which oppose “frankenfood.”
Chapter 8: Typologies of Terrorism: The Right and Left
Wings and Separatist or Nationalist Movements
A large portion of this chapter covers right-wing groups, which envision having a homogenous “racially pure” country. All right-wing groups have in common “enemies” such as the
“Zionist Occupied Government” (ZOG); illegal immigrants; people of color; and lesbians,
gay, bisexual, transgender people, and those questioning their sexual identity (LGBTQ).
Having a group to oppose promotes in-group solidarity, which helps to perpetuate the existence of right-wing movements (e.g., Hitler used the Jews for this purpose and the English
Defence League targets Muslims). Right-wing movements in America include the Ku Klux
Klan, neo-Nazis, and the anti-federalist/Christian Patriot groups.
Left-wing groups identified globally in the chapter include Sendero Luminoso (Shining
Path) in Peru; the Red Army Faction (RAF) that operated mainly in Germany, but also in
France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands; the Red Brigades in Italy; Revolutionary Armed
Forces of Colombia (FARC); the Seung Fein in China; and the Weather Underground in the
United States. The left wing historically has been unsuccessful in achieving its goal: replacing existing governments with ones that are based on Marxist-Leninist principles.
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Separatist/nationalist movements are typically subnational groups who want a homeland. The groups often share a common culture, language, and history. Examples include
the Kurdistan Workers Party, the Tamil Tigers, the Eritrean Liberation Front, and the Second Vermont Republic. Ireland’s drive to become an independent country is discussed, as
are the similarities between the Anglo-Irish War and the American Revolution.
Chapter 9: Intelligence and Terrorism
Chapters 9 and 10 represent yet another set of “twins.” In Chapter 9, we define intelligence
and counterintelligence and, more important, we define plaguing questions that continue to
impede our ability to prevent terrorism. For instance, the final report of a Congressional Advisory Panel after 9/11, commonly known as the Gilmore Commission, identified several issues
relating to the failure of the intelligence community to prevent terrorism. These included a
failure to provide timely, accurate, and specific intelligence information to law enforcement,
security, and military agencies, as well as an overly bureaucratic and decentralized structure
(particularly within the FBI) that hindered a unified and coordinated effort between federal
and local agencies to address the terrorist threat. While some of these issues continue, the
intelligence community has worked hard to overcome many of these obstacles. More recent
controversies involving the uneasy alliance between President Donald Trump and the intelligence community are also discussed in this chapter, with special attention given to the
replacement (firing) of NSA Director Michael Flynn and FBI Director James Comey.
We address the complexity of the intelligence community in Chapter 9, defining the
agencies involved in the intelligence community, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the National Security Agency (NSA),
and the relatively new roles of the Office of National Intelligence and the National Counterterrorism Center. We also present an overview of other agencies within the intelligence
community and explore “fusion centers,” which have become common entities at the state
and local level aimed at better coordinating the intelligence efforts among all divisions of
government—federal, state, tribal, county, and city.
Chapter 10: Intelligence, Terrorism, and the U.S.
Constitution
In Chapter 10, we address head-on the issues that surround the use of intelligence and
intelligence gathering as a tool to prevent terrorism that seem to dot our newspapers on a
near weekly basis. We closely examine the USA PATRIOT Act and discuss specific incidents
that question and, in some cases, answer how far our government should go to protect
our citizens. Specifically, we discuss the conflicts between the PATRIOT Act, the Freedom
Act, and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) and the First, Fourth, and Fifth
Amendments to the U.S. Constitution as related to the practice of extraordinary rendition,
“enhanced” interview techniques and torture of suspected terrorist prisoners, the use of the
military to supplement civilian police in conflict to the Posse Comitatus Act, police agencies
that infiltrate political and religious groups that clearly blurs the line between policing and
intelligence gathering, and the use of drones as both an offensive weapon in the Middle East
and as a spying tool domestically. These issues and others are discussed in light of current
events and the highlighted cases involving Bradley/Chelsea Manning, WikiLeaks, and
Edward Snowden.
Chapter 11: Homeland Security
Eleven days after the 9/11 attacks, Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge was appointed as the
first director of the Office of Homeland Security by President George W. Bush. His job was
to develop, oversee, and coordinate a new, comprehensive national strategy to safeguard the
country against terrorism and respond to any future attacks. Over a year later, on November 25,
2002, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was created as a stand-alone agency,
composed of 22 different preexisting federal agencies. It was the largest reorganization of the
federal bureaucracy since the National Security Act of 1947. Chapter 11 provides an overview
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of the key agencies assigned to DHS, such as the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), U.S. Citizenship
and Immigration Services (USCIS), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Customs
and Border Protection (CBP), Transportation Security Administration (TSA), U.S. Secret Service, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The chapter explores each
agency’s role in fulfilling the core homeland security mission of preventing terrorism and enhancing the security of the United States.
Chapter 12: America’s Vulnerability to Terrorism
Chapters 12 and 13 represent our final set of “twin” chapters. They are slightly different from the other sets as they are not extensions of the same subject matter, but rather
complements to each other. In Chapter 12, we discuss openly America’s vulnerability to
terrorism. We define “critical infrastructure” and focus our work around the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) that provides a framework in which to discuss potential
target sites and give a reasonable risk assessment for each of the 16 sectors identified in
NIPP. The discussion in Chapter 12 is all about “prevention” now, before an event, and providing an “all-hazard” plan that protects critical resources and human life from any kind of
catastrophe, disease, or disaster regardless of causation, natural (e.g., flood, fire, hurricane,
tornado, or earthquake) or man-made (e.g., terrorist strike; large cyber attack; mass shooting at a school, mall, or sporting event; or surprise attack from a foreign government). In
Chapter 13, our discussion moves from prevention to response and mitigation—the effort to
reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of such an event.
Chapter 13: Emergency Management
While FEMA is the key federal agency for the emergency management of a terrorist attack or natural disaster after the event, a myriad of other agencies have specific roles in
responding to and recovering from a disaster. For instance, the coordination of local relief
agencies, food banks, shelters, and the like fall within the FEMA management guidelines,
while specific responses to public health issues from open sewage lines, biological agents,
or even radiation may be more appropriately handled by another agency such as the Center
for Disease Control (CDC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission (NRC)—all of which are discussed in Chapter 13.
The chapter provides a strong historical piece on the evolution of emergency management culminating in an in-depth discussion on our current National Preparedness System.
We address the possibilities of significant attack from weapons of mass destruction and
CBRNE-borne weapons, and more important, the formal mechanisms of the Incident Command System that are currently in place to address such an unspeakable event—from local
and state perspectives to specific federal roles. Chapters 12 and 13 discuss America’s defensive posture (i.e., planning, preventing, mitigating, and responding to a critical terrorist
strike or disaster), setting up Chapter 14: Combatting Terrorism.
Chapter 14: Combatting Terrorism
There is an important distinction between anti-terrorism (AT) and counterterrorism (CT).
At the risk of oversimplification, the former is largely composed of defensive actions, while
the latter centers on offensive operations. Chapter 14 addresses AT and CT on the basis of
a cross-section of the organizations that are executing those respective kinds of missions,
although it must be noted that some of them perform both AT and CT activities. With respect to these activities, the military, federal agencies, state and local governments, and law
enforcement agencies are covered. The role of the military is given substantial attention because of the array of units involved and their important contributions to America’s national
security. The chapter also examines types of action that can be taken against terrorists,
including raids and direct action. Military deployments are determined by national strategy,
security policy, and the determination of whether they fit into the ways, ends, and means
that have been established.
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Chapter 15: Terrorism, Intelligence, and Homeland
Security: The Future
This concluding chapter of the book ties the subject matters of terrorism, intelligence, and
homeland security together and identifies recent trends in terrorist activities. Many of the
past attacks in the United States have been carried out by homegrown terrorists using
lone wolf terrorist tactics. These events have been mostly bombings or spree shootings
using very crude and nonsophisticated weapons. Internationally, while al-Qaeda appears
to be weakening and fractionalizing as a single group, radical Islamic ideology appears
to be dramatically increasing throughout the Middle East and the rest of the world with
the emergence of the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq. While America has been victimized
repeatedly by attacks on our transportation sector (particularly the airline industry), attacks that are cyber in nature pose a much more significant threat in the future. Much of
our critical infrastructure—including water systems, power grids, gas pipelines, nuclear
power functions, and financial and communication networks—were built long before the
specter of terrorism was a consideration and contain weak defenses against potential attacks by terrorists, rogue nations, or even sophisticated criminals. Indeed, rather than
focusing on attacks that raise the public hysteria, such as attacks from weapons of mass
destruction (WMD), it might be more prudent to assume that the next major terrorist attack may be cyber in nature.
The final chapter also includes an important segment on the role of the media during terrorist events and the impact of such events on the mind of the general public.
Our concluding remarks in Chapter 15 focus not on the significant dangers and potential
threats that lurk in an unstable world, but rather on the richness, strength, diversity, and
resilience of America as we confront the future together, no different than generations
before us.
Pedagogical Features
Each chapter includes the following pedagogical features to aid students and instructors:
Learning Objectives at the beginning of each chapter identify the core elements students
need to learn.
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Key Terms in the margins define each term where it is first used in the text. At the back of
the text is a comprehensive glossary of all the key terms.
Boxes throughout the chapters highlight interesting topics that are relevant to the chapter subject matter. Each box concludes with challenging questions aimed at sparking class
discussion.
Information Links direct readers to Internet sites that provide more information on chapter topics.
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Quick Facts boxes provide unique tidbits of information related to the chapter topics.
Summaries are organized around Learning Objectives that highlight the main points of
each chapter.
Review Questions at the end of each chapter pose a series of questions to test students’
recall of the chapter information.
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Critical Thinking Exercises at the end of each chapter require students to go further and
think on the analytical level. Most of the exercises involve web research.
In addition to these pedagogical features, we devoted careful attention to the maps,
tables, figures, and photographs, researching and selecting them ourselves, striving for a
blend of informative historical images and also more current ones, many of which are compelling and tell a story by themselves.
Instructor Supplements
Instructor’s Manual with Test Bank.
Includes content outlines for classroom discussion, teaching suggestions, and answers to
selected end-of-chapter questions from the text. This also contains a Word document version of the test bank.
TestGen
This computerized test generation system gives you maximum flexibility in creating and
administering tests on paper, electronically, or online. It provides state-of-the-art features
for viewing and editing test bank questions, dragging a selected question into a test you are
creating, and printing sleek, formatted tests in a variety of layouts. Select test items from
test banks included with TestGen for quick test creation, or write your own questions from
scratch. TestGen’s random generator provides the option to display different text or calculated number values each time questions are used.
PowerPoint Presentations
Our presentations are clear and straightforward. Photos, illustrations, charts, and tables
from the book are included in the presentations when applicable.
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Preface xxxi
REVEL for Terrorism, Intelligence and Homeland
Security, Second Edition by Robert W. Taylor
and Charles R. Swanson
Designed for the Way Today’s Criminal Justice Students
Read, Think, and Learn
REVEL offers an immersive learning experience that engages students deeply, while giving them the flexibility to learn their way. Media interactives and assessments integrated
directly within the narrative enable students to delve into key concepts and reflect on their
learning without breaking stride.
• REVEL seamlessly combines the full content of Pearson’s bestselling criminal
justice titles with multimedia learning tools. You assign the topics your students cover.
Author Explanatory Videos, application exercises, and short quizzes engage
students and enhance their understanding of core topics as they progress through
the content.
• Instead of simply reading about criminal justice topics, REVEL empowers students
to think critically about important concepts by completing application exercises,
watching Point/CounterPoint videos, and participating in shared writing (discussion board)
assignments.
Track Time-on-Task throughout the Course
The Performance Dashboard allows you to see how much time the class or individual students have spent reading a section or doing an assignment, as well as points earned per
assignment. This data helps correlate study time with performance and provides a window
into where students may be having difficulty with the material.
Learning Management System Integration
Pearson provides both Blackboard Learn™ and Canvas™ integration, giving institutions,
instructors, and students easy access to Revel. Our Revel integration delivers streamlined
access to everything your students need for the course in the Blackboard Learn and Canvas
environments.
The REVEL App
The REVEL App further empowers students to access their course materials wherever and
whenever they want. With the REVEL App, students can access REVEL directly from their
tablet or mobile device, offline and online. Reminders and notifications can be set so you
never miss a deadline. Work done on the REVEL app syncs up to the browser version, ensuring that no one misses a beat. Visit www.pearsonhighered.com/revel/
A01_TAYL8146_02_SE_FM.indd 31 02/12/17 1:12 AM
xxxii
Although it is insufficient compensation for their gracious assistance, we would like to recognize here the individuals who helped make this book a reality. Many good friends at “three
letter agencies” and the military, all of whom wish to remain unnamed, read several chapters
and made cogent comments, for which we are grateful. Several provided up-to-date information on issues relating to the Middle East as the chapters were being written.
Ms. Jennifer Davis-Lamm provided ongoing research and contribution to several chapters. We are forever indebted for her services. Mr. Jason Lane greatly assisted with research
on Chapter 12: America’s Vulnerability to Terrorism and Chapter 13: Emergency Management. Dr. Kelley Stone contributed to Chapter 13 as well, and allowed us to draw upon his
excellent knowledge of fusion centers in Chapter 9: Intelligence and Terrorism. A special
“thank you” to our good friend and Bob’s former graduate student, Dr. Ahmet Yayla, former
Chief of Counterterrorism and Operations Division for the Turkish National Police (TNP) and
the coauthor of a new exciting book entitled ISIS Defectors: Inside Stories of the Terrorist
Caliphate (Washington, D.C.: Advances Press, July 2016), with Dr. Anne Speckhard. Ahmet
and Anne graciously provided several photos for this book as well as their keen insight into
the Islamic State. Dr. Sulyman Ozeren, Dr. Samih Teymur, and Dr. Mustafa Ozgular, again
from the Turkish National Police, assisted in writing and developing Chapters 3 and 4. Their
knowledge and patience greatly helped us understand the foundations as well as the historical evolution of Islam as presented in Chapter 3: Understanding the Middle East and Islam
and Chapter 4: The Rise of Radical Islam. Mr. Zeeshan Syed proofread Chapters 3 and 4 for
accuracy, and Ms. Amy Kryzak proofed the entire first edition through Grammarly. Last,
but certainly not least, Bob’s close friend and colleague, Dr. Galia Cohen, edited the entire
manuscript for Pearson, providing a solid foundation and wonderful direction for the book.
Her suggestions were invaluable to this edition.
Paige Cummings, Traci Swanson, and Kellie Pless also read and commented on the chapters, improving them. Our longstanding friend, Leonard Territo, went through materials
very carefully, catching lapses. The Federal Bureau of Investigation provided photos, and we
are appreciative of the speed with which they responded to our requests.
We would like to thank the following reviewers for their comments and suggestions: Salih Hakan Can, Penn State University – Schuylkill Campus; Brian LeBlanc, Rivier University;
Deborah Louis, Eastern Kentucky University; Pamela Mertens, Northeastern State University; James O’Sullivan, Pace University; John Padgett, Capella University; Carlos Parker,
Cumberland County College; Jennifer Estis-Sumerel, Itawamba Community College; and
Lisa Ann Zanglin, Auburn University – Montgomery.
Lastly, we would like to thank our editors. Ms. Elisa Rogers, our developmental editor,
has just been wonderful during this entire project. Thank you, Elisa, for your time, energy,
and patience. And, thank you to our managing editor, Mr. Gary Bauer, for his continued
guidance and support. He was willing to “go to bat” for us on numerous occasions. We truly
hope this book realizes his expectations. It has been a pleasure working with him, as well as
the entire Pearson team.
Acknowledgments
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xxxiii
Robert W. Taylor is currently a tenured full Professor in the Department of Criminology
and Criminal Justice at The University of Texas at Dallas. The Department was recently
ranked fifth in the world in academic excellence based on the strength of its Ph.D. program. Previous to this position, he was the Director of the Executive Masters in Justice
Administration and Leadership Program and the former program Head for the Public Affairs
Program at UT-Dallas. Both are academic programs integrating the traditions of management, governmental affairs, policy analysis, and decision science in the public sector. The
Public Affairs Program hosted one of the largest graduate degree programs on campus, including Doctoral (Ph.D.) and Master’s Degrees in Public Affairs and Public Administration.
From January 2008 through 2010, Bob was the Executive Director of the W.W. Caruth
Jr. Police Institute at Dallas (CPI). The Institute was established through a $9.5 million
grant from the Communities Foundation of Texas. Bob was a principal party to the development of the Institute and was appointed the founding director by the University of North
Texas System. The primary mission of the Institute is to provide direction and coordination of major training and research projects for the Dallas Police Department. The Institute
represents a national “think tank” on policing strategies focused on major urban cities
in the United States. He remains a “Scholar-in-Residence” at the Institute. From 1996 to
2008, Bob was professor and chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at the University
of North Texas. He served in this capacity for thirteen years, and under his direction the
Department gained national prominence, especially with the establishment of the Caruth
Police Institute.
In 1995, Dr. Taylor took a leave of absence from university administration and teaching
to join Emergency Resources International, Inc., the parent company of the famed “Red
Adair” firefighters. His duties as Senior Vice-President, Crisis Management Division, included liaison with foreign governments and authorities, extensive contract negotiations, and
the strategic development of a worldwide communication and information system. Bob’s
major project was acting as team leader on the largest oil spill in history (3 million barrels),
located in the remote Nenets District of Russia, over 200 miles north of the Arctic Circle.
For the past forty years, Dr. Taylor has studied criminal justice administration and specifically police responses to crime and terrorism, focusing on issues in the Middle East. He
has traveled extensively throughout the Middle East, meeting several heads of state in that
region. He has acted as a consultant to numerous federal, state, and local agencies, and
since September 11, 2001, Bob has been a consultant to the U.S. Department of Justice
working with the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR) as a lead instructor in the
State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training Program (SLATT). Bob has also worked extensively
throughout the Middle East, especially in the country of Turkey. He has been an instructor
for the U.S. Department of State, Anti-Terrorism Assistance (ATA) Program (2001–2006)
and taught internationally in the Executive Seminar on Cyber Terrorism presented to executives of foreign governments. Dr. Taylor holds appropriate top secret national security
clearances through the JPASS system (archived).
Dr. Taylor has authored or coauthored over 200 articles, books, and manuscripts. Most
of his publications focus on police administration and management, police procedures, international and domestic terrorism, drug trafficking, and criminal justice policy. His articles
appear in numerous journals, including Defense Analysis (University of Oxford, England
Press), the ANNALS (American Academy of Political and Social Sciences), Police Quarterly, Crime and Delinquency, and the Police Chief (International Association of Chiefs of Police). Dr. Taylor is coauthor of two leading textbooks, Police Administration: Structures,
Processes, and Behavior (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Publishing, 2017), currently in
its 9th edition, and Criminal Investigation (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2018), currently in its
About the Authors
A01_TAYL8146_02_SE_FM.indd 33 02/12/17 1:12 AM
xxxiv About the Authors
12th edition. These texts are used in over 500 universities, colleges, and police departments
throughout the United States. He is also the senior author of Juvenile Justice: Policies,
Practices, and Programs (McGraw-Hill, 2014) in its 4th edition, Digital Crime and Digital
Terrorism (Pearson, 2018) in its 4th edition, and Police Patrol Allocation and Deployment
(Pearson, 2011).
Dr. Taylor has an extensive background in academic and professional criminal justice,
having taught at four major universities and serving as a sworn police officer and major
crimes detective (lateral rank of sergeant) in Portland, Oregon, for over six years.
In 1984, Bob was appointed as a Research Fellow at the International Center for the
Study of Violence at the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, conducting various
studies involving international and domestic terrorism, police training and management,
public violence and homicide, computerized mapping, and international drug trafficking.
He continues to conduct research in these areas and is the recipient of numerous grants
and contracts (over $18 million in funded projects). His latest work is concentrated in four
areas: (1) quality improvement in police agencies through advanced leadership and management practices; (2) international terrorism, especially Middle-Eastern groups, and the
spread of radical Islam; (3) evaluation of community policing, CompStat, and intelligenceled policing strategies in the United States; and (4) intelligence analysis, fusion centers, and
decision making, particularly during protracted conflict or crisis situations.
In 2004, the International Justice Mission in Washington, D.C., asked Bob to assist in the
training of the Cambodian National Police on child sex slavery and human trafficking as part
of a large project funded through the U.S. Department of State ($1 million). His interest
and research in this area have led to a leadership role in designing and developing training
efforts in the United States aimed at raising awareness of the human trafficking tragedy for
American law enforcement officers, funded in part through the U.S. Department of Justice.
Dr. Taylor focuses on the nexus between human trafficking, drug trafficking, and the financing of terrorist incidents internationally and domestically. He continues this important work
as a guest lecturer, speaking at conferences internationally on these subjects.
In 2003, Dr. Taylor was awarded the University of North Texas, Regent’s Lecture Award
for his work in the Middle East. In March 2008, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
presented Bob with the prestigious O.W. Wilson Award “in recognition of his outstanding
contribution to police education, research and practice.”
Dr. Taylor has been a consultant to the U.S. Army, the U.S. Marine Corps, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Department of Treasury, Federal Law Enforcement
Training Center, the U.S. Secret Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the
U.S. Department of Justice, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Drug Enforcement
Administration, the Police Foundation, the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), the
International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), and numerous state and local municipalities and private corporations. He has also conducted significant training in the United
States protectorates of the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and Saipan, and the countries of
Canada, England, France, Switzerland, Thailand, Cambodia, Barbados, Northern Cyprus,
Bahrain, Venezuela, Russia, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Kenya, Singapore, and Turkey.
He is an active member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (elected National Chair
of the ACJS Police Section – 2002), the American Society for Public Administration, and the
American Society of Criminology.
Dr. Taylor is a graduate of Michigan State University (Master of Science, 1973) and Portland State University (Doctor of Philosophy, 1981).
A01_TAYL8146_02_SE_FM.indd 34 02/12/17 1:12 AM
About the Authors xxxv
Charles R. “Mike” Swanson enlisted in the Marine Corps when he was 17 years old, subsequently working as Patrol Officer and Detective with the Tampa Police Department. He
joined Florida Governor Claude Kirk’s staff as a Senior Police Planner and later as Deputy
Director of the Governor’s Council on Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. Mike taught
criminal justice courses at East Carolina University before becoming a faculty member at
the Institute of Government (IOG) at the University of Georgia. Faculty members in the
IOG are charged with carrying out programs of research, training, and technical assistance
for Georgia units of state and local government. Mike specialized in reorganization of police
departments to achieve enhanced performance.
For much of his 29 years in the IOG, Mike focused on three efforts:
1. Designing promotional systems for police and fire departments. Notably, he led a
large city police department and a state patrol agency out of federal court, creating
promotional systems that are still used and have not been successfully challenged.
Mike has designed hundreds of valid and reliable written promotional tests and assessment center exercises. He has trained hundreds of assessors and directed more
than 50 assessment centers.
2. Training. As Director of the IOG’s Southeastern Law Enforcement Programs, he
created and led advanced training programs for more than 10,000 officers from 46
states and 4 foreign countries.
3. Partnering with police departments to foster improvements. Virtually on a daily
basis for 29 years, Mike worked with police departments to resolve smaller to largescale problems, often acting as a change agent. On a larger scale, he conducted
analyses that were the basis of his reorganization of units or entire police agencies,
as well as the consolidation of a large city police department with a county police
agency. Many of Mike’s more than 100 technical reports were written to support his
work in this area.
Mike advanced through the administrative ranks of the IOG, Program Director, Division
Director, Deputy Director, and retired as the Acting Director. His home is in Athens, Georgia,
a musical hot spot with several internationally known bands residing there. One of his more
unusual consulting jobs was advising a major touring band on how to recover a member’s
stolen guitar.
In addition to conference papers, refereed articles, and chapters in books, Mike has coauthored several books, including The Police Personnel Selection Process, Introduction to
Criminal Justice, Court Administration, Police Administration: Structures, Processes,
and Behavior (9th edition, 2017), and Criminal Investigation (12th edition, 2018).
Mike has received an array of recognitions, including a Distinguished Service Award
and the Walter Bernard Hill Award from the University of Georgia, commendations from
the governors of three states for contributions to public service, the O.W. Wilson Award for
Distinguished Scholarship, a Service Award from the Georgia Association of Chiefs of Police,
as well as receiving their First Honorary Chief of Police Award for service to that organization. As a consultant, Mike has worked with police agencies as far apart as the Elizabeth,
New Jersey, Police Department, the Dallas Police Department, and the Multnomah County
(Oregon) Department of Public Safety. He has also taught abroad in the Shanghai Municipal
Institute. In 2016, Mike was honored as a Distinguished Alumni of Florida State University’s
College of Criminology and Criminal Justice.
He received bachelor and masters degrees in criminology from Florida State University
and a Ph.D. in Political Science, with a concentration in public administration, from the
University of Georgia.
A01_TAYL8146_02_SE_FM.indd 35 02/12/17 1:12 AM
A01_TAYL8146_02_SE_FM.indd 36 02/12/17 1:12 AM

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